Teaching as coaching, with a focus on a cooperative approach, especially in a group setting. Teacher as guide on a journey of learning and discovery, possibly an adventure shared by both teacher and student - allowing the guide to take advantage of the collective wisdom of the students. Another valuable articulation is offered. Knuth ( The textbook of the future, 1993; Metaphors we teach by, 2001) within the framework of The handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology (Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 2001). In discussing metaphors of the mind they fruitfully distinguish between "mind as computer" (mac "mind as brain" (mab and " mind as rhizome " (MAR). The latter metaphor enables them to emphasize that: all knowledge is constructed; all learning is a process of construction many world views can be constructed; hence there will be multiple perspectives knowledge is context dependent, so learning should occur in contexts to which. The policy implications of choice of metaphor were notably highlighted by donald Schön ( Generative metaphor: a perspective on problem-setting in social policy, 1993). Images of religious education : Bowman's insights are cited.
200 Short and Sweet Metaphor Examples - literary devices
" the teacher is the master, the student the disciple " also fits in this general category. This metaphor more explicitly delineates the power-over relationship between teacher and student although when the teacher is telling or depositing knowledge, power- over is also suggested. Such metaphors notably frame the conventional processes of academic meetings and policy presentations. Bowman notes their limitations as writer being: they view the teaching-learning process as a one-way exchange in which the power, authority, and expertise of the teacher exert control over the student. They view students as passive, rather than active learners, and tend to overlook opportunities for students to become engaged with the material they are learning. They view teaching excellence as primarily dependent on discipline knowledge and tend to overlook other factors that contribute to quality teaching and learning. They subtly encourage faculty to be nonreflective practitioners in their teaching role. Such metaphors are clearly a constraint on policy formulation and strategic design where successful communication is dependent on imbuing a "higher" degree of "education". Bowman then elaborates on the merits of other metaphors regarding the teaching role: teaching as gardening, through which a more organic view of the teaching-learning process emerges. Teaching as cooking, especially given the variety of understandings of the cooking process and the variations between the traditional teacher-centered approach and a more cooperative, group-centered one.
Much large-class and lecture teaching is clearly based on this metaphor. Many college curricula support this metaphor through their detailed objectives about what students must learn, without clearly developed strategies by which the learning will occur. Faculty express this metaphor implicitly when they state their concerns about "covering" the material, meaning that they need to tell the students about the material. They also reflect this metaphor when they define faculty development strictly in terms of gaining more knowledge about their disciplines, excluding activities which enhance teaching. " teaching is like banking ". Knowledge exists in the head of the teacher, who deposits the information into the head of the student. The student is a passive recipient of the wisdom of the teacher. This model at least allows for writing the possibility that the student's knowledge may earn interest.
For Bowman: The challenge is to bring our operating metaphors into conscious awareness, to consider how they may be encouraging or restricting our growth, and to change those metaphors that british are creating too many limitations. She presents a sampling of teaching metaphors, prefaced by the remark that Many educational metaphors exist that describe the processes of teaching and learning. The metaphors with which we are most comfortable as teachers communicate clearly our philosophy of teaching and learning, revealing how we see ourselves in relationship to students and what we think it means to teach. This point can be considered pertinent, as a warning, with respect to the intellectual comfort zones within which the future of "higher" education tends to be envisaged. As examples, bowman identifies: " teaching is telling many college and university faculty appear to have this as their primary operating metaphor. The teacher possesses the body of knowledge, and learning occurs when the student is told the information. At its most fundamental level, this metaphor is based on the assumption that the teacher who stands in front of the class and talks about the subject at hand is engaged in teaching and that therefore students are learning.
One useful point of departure is the work of Gareth Morgan ( Images of Organization, 1986; Riding the waves of Change; developing managerial competencies for a turbulent world, 1988). In the former Morgan has provided a widely-cited set of eight metaphors through which organizations tend to be viewed: Machine, organism, Brain, culture, political System, Psychic Prison, Flux and Transformation, and Instrument of Domination. Operating within any one of these metaphors of course reveals its style of truth and development (if any). Morgan's work tends to be cited in discussing "images of education" - understood as a form of "organization whether with respect to knowledge or its institutional transmission. Clearly metaphors of this kind can be used, or adapted, to frame the implied modes of learning and knowing. Any such set can be developed to distinguish "ways of knowing including "ways of ordering" and even "ways of questioning" - all of which are of significance to possible understandings of education. The "way" metaphor is of course consistent with that of the "journey" metaphor frequently associated with education, learning and discovery. Images of teaching : Especially relevant is the argument of Mary Ann Bowman in the case of higher education ( Metaphors we teach By: understanding ourselves as teachers and learners. In: Essays on teaching Excellence, 8, 4, 1996-7 inspired like many others by the approach of cognitive psychologists george lakoff and Mark johnson ( Metaphors we live by 1980).
Sonic boom physics
Even up to the present moment, humanity continues to wait for roald events and crises that would catalyze or impose this primitive learning by shock. But the global problematique introduces at least one new risk - that the shock could be fatal. This possibility, however remote, reveals most clearly the crisis of conventional learning: primary reliance on maintenance learning not only is blocking the emergence of innovative learning, but it renders humanity increasingly vulnerable to shock; and under conditions of global uncertainty, learning by shock. 10) Higher education may be understood as focused on maintenance learning. The dangers of the shock learning identified may be understood as those of failure in capacity to navigate the adaptive cycle, notably as articulated by the resilience Alliance and highlighted in the study by Thomas Homer-Dixon ( The Upside of Down: catastrophe, creativity, and the. The assumption by the report of the absence of limits to learning can now be understood as ill-founded - given both the disruption by civilizational shocks and the memetic singularity implied by increasing information overload ( Societal learning and the Erosion of Collective memory:.
The challenge is framed otherwise by will McWhinney and laura markos ( Transformative education Across the Threshold. Journal of Transformative education, january 2003) who argue that the human condition has changed radically in the past 100 years and that educational institutions, formal and informal, have not kept pace with technological innovations, the lengthening life span, or the need for ongoing reeducation. They distinguish between learning and education and, more significantly, between transformative learning and transformative education. Their purpose is to highlight the need for another level of education suitable to 21st-century society, and to engage a global, cross-disciplinary dialogue to inform transformative educational practice across its personal, productive, instrumental, emancipatory, and holistic goals. "Meta-education" as discussed here could be understood as consistent with this purpose - although not with its presentation as a "level". Images of organization : In considering education in the future, it is appropriate to explore how education is imagined, can be imagined - and how it might be imagined especially when supported by new technologies.
Over twice as many - and every one of them needing space. Space for their homes, space to grow their food (or to get others to grow it for them space to build schools and roads and airfields. Where could that come from? A little might be taken from land occupied by other people but most of it could only come from the land which, for millions of years, animals and plants had had to themselves - the natural world. But the impact of these extra millions of people has spread even beyond the space they physically claimed. The spread of industrialisation has changed the chemical constituency of the atmosphere.
The oceans that cover most of the surface of the planet have been polluted and increasingly acidified. And the earth is warming. We now realise that the disasters that continue increasingly to afflict the natural world have one element that connects them all - the unprecedented increase in the number of human beings on the planet. Sir david Attenborough, president's Lecture 2011: people and Planet, royal Society of Arts, ) Challenge engendered and sustained by "higher education"? Institutionalised Shunning of overpopulation Challenge (2008) United Nations overpopulation Denial Conference (2009) Lipoproblems: developing a strategy Omitting a key problem (2009) Images of education, learning and knowing maintenance learning. Shock learning : A major report to the Club of Rome ( Mahdi Elmandjra,. No limits to learning: bridging the human gap, 1981) highlighted the contrast between "maintenance learning" and "shock learning". Maintenance learning was recognized as reinforcing existing categories and paradigms, the disciplines to which they give rise, and the professional and institutional division of labour of which they are the basis. It noted: Traditionally societies and individuals have adopted a pattern of continuous maintenance learning interrupted by short periods of innovation stimulated largely by the shock of external events.
What's past is prologue - enotes Shakespeare"s
In quest of Uncommon Ground: beyond impoverished metaphor and the impotence of words of power, 1997). The reasons for the unusual typography in the title, used to for challenge the sterile implications of binary logic, empire are discussed separately ( ¿ defining the objective refining the subjective?! Explaining reality embodying realization, 2011). This is consistent with a concern with the paradoxical nature of the challenges of the times, a degree of convergence on a "memetic singularity and the obligation for many effectively to live "between worlds" (. Emerging Memetic Singularity in the Global Knowledge society, 2009 ; living as an Imaginal Bridge between Worlds: Global implications of "betwixt and between" and liminality, 2011). The fundamental challenge for "meta-education"? World Population to reach 7 Billion on Estimate of the 2010 revision of World Population Prospects, prepared by the population division of the un department of Economic and Social Affairs. Fifty years ago, when the wwf was founded, there were about three billion people on earth. Now there are almost seven billion.
This project never took root in our educational system, but was discarded by those who came after him, who offered instead something more narrow in the name of certain ideological promissory notes to be cashed at a distant future date. We have thus developed certain habits of mind while burying others, using education full to indoctrinate rather than to recall from the past those habits of mind that made us different and diverse, and which guaranteed our continuity as a species and as a multiplicity. Given the apparent current inadequacies of "higher education it is curious that it has been primarily inspired by the Aristotelian model, with little capacity to reframe fruitfully any complementarity with the contrasting perspective offered by Plato. Hence an institutionalised inability to engage constructively with potentially valuable "alternatives". The use of "meta-education" here endeavours to articulate the dynamics of engagement with Plato's plurality. Rather than emphasizing conventional disciplines requiring conventional styles of lengthy education to achieve competence, it seeks to focus on the rapid acquisition of the set of fundamental cognitive skills vital to human survival and thrival. Particular importance is attached to the way in which such a cognitive "toolkit" might be understood in order to enable effective use of its elements. The role of metaphor is seen to be vital in offering a degree of insight to many - especially those in constrained circumstances, potentially characterized by metaphorical impoverishment inhibiting their imaginative development and ability to engage fruitfully with their environment (.
"higher" order. The situation is especially dramatic in conflict zones and in "temporary" refugee camps which become tragically permanent. All these factors are a constraint on the fruitful development of the imagination - so fundamental to all that is implied by education, especially in the lifelong form articulated by the unesco. Institute for Lifelong learning and by its, learning to be: the world of education today and tomorrow (1972). With respect to "higher education the exploration here follows from the extensive critique by Antonio. Habits of Mind: an introduction to the philosophy of education, 1989). For him: Habits of mind are identified as the whole range of mental operations people perform, and have performed in history, giving them an individual and social identity, to include cultural diversity and individual uniqueness. These habits of mind are: the abstraction of images from objects already in the world, the forming of opinions, cognitive operations with their diverse levels of abstraction as exemplified in the operations of science and art and the whole range of imaginative operations for original. De nicolas then argues that: Plato proposed these plural habits of mind and their development as the curriculum and project of education.
It is appropriate to ask whether, more fundamentally, this situation is a consequence of inadequacies in the education of those most influential in such matters. Is the evident incompetence a consequence of "higher education" as currently conceived? Is it a consequence of unexamined assumptions regarding the governability of the global system and the ability to achieve consensus to that end - again deriving from inadequacies in higher education (. Ungovernability of Sustainable Global Democracy? 2011; The consensus Delusion, 2011)? These inadequacies are compounded by the tragedy of unemployment with the associated personal despair, the relative sterility of conventional education with its focus on paper qualifications, and the questionable proposal communication efficiencies of meetings for the development and exchange of ideas in response to such issues. Ironically this complex of challenges is further highlighted by the amazing advances in electronic communication and the ever wider access to information of every kind - in the sense that diminishing attention span becomes a consequence of information overload leading to underuse of vital information. The matter is further complicated by questionable patterns of peer review and intellectual copyright, both severely limiting access to knowledge and insight.
Literary devices literary terms)
Raft, transforming cognitive enabling processes increasingly unfit for purpose - /, introduction. Images of education, learning and knowing. Education: "higher" vs "meta metaphors through which to lab reframe education. Quest for hyperconnectivity, reframing connectivity through metaphor, imaginal education through mining civilizational knowledge. Mnemonic holding patterns for the dynamics of connectivity. Meta-education in practice, references, introduction, the current period is witness to severe inadequacies in response to humanitarian crisis (10 million threatened with starvation in Africa) and in governance of the global financial system (risk of imminent dollar and eurozone defaults). It is curiously significant that the potential dollar default is associated with the most powerful nation, recognized for the merit of its higher education system, whereas the most probable eurozone default is that of a far weaker nation from which understandings of higher education first. The debt of the former nation is far in excess of that of the latter - with little said as to their relative competence in governance.